GU Insurance and Risk Management Solved Question Paper 2022 [Gauhati University BCom 2nd Sem CBCS]

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Gauhati University BCom Insurance and Risk Management Solved Question Paper 2022

Gauhati University BCOM 2nd SEM Question Papers

[Insurance and Risk Management Solved Question Paper 2022]

COMMERCE (Honours Generic)


(Insurance and Risk Management)

Paper: COM-HG-2026

Full Marks: 80

Time: Three hours

The figures in the margin indicate full marks for the questions.

1. Answer any ten questions of the following as directed: 1x10=10

(a) In which year Life Insurance Corporation of India came into effect?

Answer: 1956

(b) State whether the following statement is True or False: 

Insurance risk can be predicted.

Answer: False. Insurance risk cannot be predicted with certainty; it involves assessing probabilities based on historical data and actuarial calculations.

(c) Loss control involves identifying.

(1) Risk.

(2) Control.

(3) Profit.

(4) Market. (Choose the correct alternative)

Answer:(1) Risk, Loss control involves identifying risks and is accompanied by voluntary or required actions a policyholder should undertake to reduce risk.

(d) Write one example of Regulatory Framework of Insurance.

Answer: An example of a regulatory framework of insurance is the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India (IRDAI), which is responsible for regulating and promoting the insurance industry in India.

(e) State whether the following statement is True or False: 

Workers strike is an external risk.

Answer: False,Workers' strike is considered an internal risk as it arises from within the organization or industry.

(f) In which of the following years, Bombay Mutual Life Insurance Society started its business in India?

(1) 1870.

(2) 1871.

(3) 1872.

(4) 1873. (Choose the correct alternative)

Answer: (1) 1870

(g) In which year was the Insurance Act passed?


(h) State whether the following statement is True or False

Hull insurance is not concerned with the insurance of ships.

Answer: False

(i) A serious and immediate danger is called:

(1) Hazard.

(2) Peril.

(3) Loss.

(4) Risk. (Choose the correct alternative)

Answer(2) Peril

(j) Write  full form of IRDA.

Answer: Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India

(k) State whether the following statements is True or False:

 A life insurance policy is issued for five years.

Answer: False. The term of a life insurance policy can be anything from 10 years to 30 years, or even longer.

(l) In which year the Malhotra Committee was formed by Government of India to study whether the life insurance sector should be opened for private player?

(1) 1991.

(2) 1992.

(3) 1993.

(4) 1999. (Choose the correct alternative)

Answer(3) 1993

(m) State whether the following statement is True or False: 

Insurance help businessman to concentrate their attention on business.

Answer: True

(n) State whether the following statement is True or False: Insurance like fire and marine insurance are contract of indemnity.

Answer: True

(o) State whether the following statement is True or False: Globalization has also caused immigration numbers to rise.

Answer: True

Gauhati University BCom Insurance and Risk Management Solved Question Paper 2022

2. Answer any five questions of the following in about 50 words each:        2 x 5=10

(a) Define risk.

Ans: Risk can be defined as the potential for loss, harm, or uncertainty. It represents the possibility of an undesirable outcome or deviation from expected results. In the context of insurance, risk refers to the likelihood of an event occurring that would result in a financial loss.

(b) State the meaning of Hedging.

Ans: Hedging refers to the practice of minimizing or offsetting the risk of adverse price movements or fluctuations in financial markets. It involves taking positions or entering contracts that act as a counterbalance to potential losses in other investments, thereby reducing overall risk exposure.

(c) What is meant by health insurance?

Ans:  Health insurance is a type of insurance coverage that provides financial protection and reimbursement for medical expenses incurred by individuals or families. It typically covers costs related to medical treatments, hospitalization, surgeries, medications, and preventive care, depending on the specific policy terms and conditions

(d) Give the meaning of negligence.

Ans: Negligence refers to the failure to exercise reasonable care or caution that results in harm or injury to another person or property. It implies a lack of proper attention, carelessness, or disregard for the safety and well-being of others. Negligence can give rise to legal liability and the obligation to compensate the affected party.

(e) Define Actuaries.

Ans: Actuaries are professionals who use mathematical and statistical methods to assess and manage risks. They apply their expertise in areas such as insurance, finance, and investments to analyze data, evaluate probabilities, and make informed decisions. Actuaries play a crucial role in risk assessment, pricing insurance policies, and ensuring the financial stability of insurance companies.

(f) What is surrender value of policies?

Ans: The surrender value of an insurance policy refers to the amount that a policyholder receives upon surrendering or canceling their policy before its maturity. It represents the accumulated cash value of the policy, minus any applicable charges, fees, or deductions. The surrender value is typically lower than the total premiums paid, reflecting the insurer's expenses and allowances for policy duration

(g) Write two features of IRDA.

Ans: IRDA Features:

1. Regulatory Authority: IRDA is the regulatory body for the insurance sector, enforcing guidelines and regulations for insurers, intermediaries, and stakeholders.

2. Policyholder Protection: IRDA protects policyholders' interests by setting fair standards for insurance policies and ensuring insurers fulfill their obligations.

Gauhati University BCom Insurance and Risk Management Solved Question Paper 2022

3. Answer any four questions of the following in about 150 words:        5 x 4=20

(a) Briefly describe the different types of risk.

Ans: There are several different types of risk that individuals and businesses face. A brief description of some common types of risk:

1. Financial Risk: Financial risk refers to the potential for financial loss or instability. This includes risks related to investments, market fluctuations, credit default, liquidity issues, and currency exchange rates.

2. Operational Risk: Operational risk arises from the internal processes, systems, and human factors within an organization. It includes risks such as operational failures, errors, fraud, supply chain disruptions, technological breakdowns, and regulatory compliance.

3. Strategic Risk: Strategic risk involves risks associated with the strategic decisions and direction of an organization. It includes risks related to changes in the competitive landscape, market trends, innovation, mergers and acquisitions, and reputation management.

4. Compliance Risk: Compliance risk refers to the risk of legal and regulatory violations. It includes risks associated with non-compliance with laws, regulations, industry standards, and ethical guidelines, which can result in fines, penalties, legal actions, or damage to reputation.

5. Reputational Risk: Reputational risk is the potential for damage to an individual's or organization's reputation. It can arise from negative public perception, poor customer experiences, product recalls, ethical misconduct, or adverse media coverage, leading to a loss of trust and credibility.

6. Environmental Risk: Environmental risk pertains to risks associated with environmental factors such as natural disasters, climate change, pollution, and resource scarcity. These risks can impact businesses' operations, supply chains, and long-term sustainability.

7. Human Risk: Human risk encompasses risks arising from human actions or behavior. This includes risks associated with employee negligence, errors, conflicts of interest, occupational health and safety, and workforce management.

8. Legal Risk: Legal risk refers to the potential for legal disputes, lawsuits, or litigation. It includes risks associated with contractual obligations, intellectual property infringement, product liability, and non-compliance with legal requirements.

(b) Write the difference between life insurance and fire insurance.

Ans: The  difference between life insurance and fire insurance.


Life Insurance 

Fire Insurance 


It is an insurance that covers the direct and incidental losses by fire.

It is an insurance that covers the direct and incidental losses by perils of sea.

Subject matter of insurance

The subject matter of fire insurance is building, machinery goods and other assets subject to fire risk. It also includes consequential loss.

The subject matter of marine insurance includes vessed (or ship), cargo, and freight subject to marine risks.

Hazards' covered

The fire policy covers the fire risks such as ignition (petane) short circuit, incidental fire, and causa proxima.

Marine policy covers the losses to the property insured from perils of sea such as storm, rain, pirates, war, perils, jettison detainment etc.

Insurable interest

Insurable interest must exist at the time of taking policy and also at the time of actual loss.

Insurable interest must be present only at the time of loss

Transfer of policy

Fire policy cannot be transferred without prior permission of the company.

Marine policy can be transferred freely form one party to another. Marine policy is taken for a specific voyage.

(c) Mention five features of marine insurance.

Ans: Marine insurance is a specialized form of insurance that covers risks associated with marine activities, including transportation of goods and vessels. Here are five features of marine insurance:

1. Voyage-Specific Coverage: Marine insurance provides coverage for specific voyages or journeys. It offers protection against risks and perils encountered during the transit of goods or vessels, such as damage, loss, theft, or accidents. The coverage is typically tailored to the specific voyage and duration.

2. Wide Range of Risks Covered: Marine insurance covers a wide range of risks associated with marine activities. These risks can include damage or loss to the insured vessel, cargo, or other property involved in the marine transport. It also includes coverage for liabilities arising from third-party claims, such as collisions, environmental damage, or injuries to crew members.

3. Time and Voyage Policies: Marine insurance offers both time policies and voyage policies. Time policies provide coverage for a specified period, typically one year, and cover multiple voyages within that timeframe. Voyage policies, on the other hand, provide coverage for a specific voyage or journey, regardless of the duration.

4. Institute Cargo Clauses: Marine insurance commonly incorporates the Institute Cargo Clauses (A, B, and C). These clauses define the extent of coverage and the risks covered under the policy. Clause A provides the most comprehensive coverage, including all risks of loss or damage, unless specifically excluded. Clause B offers coverage for a specified list of named perils. Clause C provides limited coverage for specific perils such as fire or sinking.

5. General Average and Salvage: Marine insurance covers the concept of general average and salvage. General average refers to a situation where sacrifices or expenses are incurred to protect the common interest of the ship, cargo, and crew. In such cases, marine insurance provides coverage for the proportionate share of the losses borne by the insured. Salvage coverage ensures that the insurance company pays for expenses incurred in the rescue or recovery of a vessel or cargo.

(d) State any five functions of Actuaries in life insurance.

Ans: Actuaries play a crucial role in the life insurance industry, utilizing their specialized knowledge of mathematics, statistics, and risk management. Here are five functions of actuaries in life insurance:

1. Risk Assessment and Pricing: Actuaries are responsible for assessing the risks associated with life insurance policies. They analyze various factors such as mortality rates, morbidity rates, longevity trends, and lifestyle factors to determine the appropriate pricing of insurance products. Actuaries use complex mathematical models to calculate premium rates that adequately cover the risk while ensuring the financial sustainability of the insurance company.

2. Product Development and Design: Actuaries contribute to the development and design of life insurance products. They collaborate with underwriters and product managers to create innovative insurance solutions that meet the evolving needs of policyholders. Actuaries evaluate the potential risks and financial implications of new product features and recommend adjustments to ensure the viability and profitability of the product.

3. Reserving and Financial Reporting: Actuaries are responsible for estimating reserves, which are funds set aside by insurance companies to cover future claim payments. They analyze historical data, mortality tables, and other relevant factors to calculate the appropriate reserves. Actuaries also play a key role in financial reporting, providing insights into the company's financial position, profitability, and solvency.

4. Risk Management and Solvency Analysis: Actuaries assess the financial risks faced by insurance companies and develop risk management strategies. They monitor the company's exposure to various risks, such as investment risks, mortality risks, and longevity risks, and provide recommendations to mitigate these risks. Actuaries also perform solvency analysis to ensure that the insurance company maintains sufficient capital reserves to meet its obligations.

5. Compliance and Regulatory Requirements: Actuaries ensure compliance with regulatory requirements and standards. They interpret and apply applicable laws and regulations related to life insurance, including actuarial guidelines and principles. Actuaries collaborate with regulatory authorities, providing information and reports to demonstrate compliance with regulatory standards.

(e) Discuss briefly importance of risk management.

Ans: Risk management is of paramount importance in both personal and business contexts. It involves identifying, assessing, and mitigating risks to minimize their potential negative impacts. Here are some key reasons why risk management is essential:

1. Protection of Assets and Investments: Risk management helps protect assets and investments from potential losses. By identifying and addressing risks proactively, individuals and businesses can implement strategies to safeguard their financial resources and minimize the impact of adverse events.

2. Financial Stability: Effective risk management contributes to financial stability by reducing the likelihood of significant financial setbacks. It allows individuals and organizations to plan and allocate resources more efficiently, ensuring long-term sustainability and resilience against unexpected events.

3. Business Continuity: For businesses, risk management is crucial for ensuring continuity of operations. By identifying and mitigating risks that could disrupt production, supply chains, or customer service, companies can maintain their ability to deliver products or services even during challenging times.

4. Decision Making: Risk management provides valuable insights for informed decision making. It helps individuals and businesses evaluate potential risks and rewards associated with different options, enabling them to make sound choices and allocate resources effectively.

5. Reputation and Stakeholder Confidence: Managing risks effectively protects the reputation and builds stakeholder confidence. By demonstrating proactive risk management practices, businesses show their commitment to responsible operations, which enhances trust among customers, investors, and other stakeholders.

6. Compliance and Legal Requirements: Risk management helps ensure compliance with legal and regulatory requirements. By identifying and addressing risks related to non-compliance, organizations can avoid legal penalties, reputational damage, and disruptions to their operations.

7. Innovation and Growth: Risk management encourages innovation and growth by enabling individuals and businesses to take calculated risks. By understanding and managing potential risks, organizations can explore new opportunities, enter new markets, and pursue strategic initiatives with greater confidence.

Gauhati University BCom Insurance and Risk Management Solved Question Paper 2022

(f) Highlight any five points of IRDA Regulation, 2019.

Ans: The Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority (IRDA) of India introduced the IRDA (Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority) Regulation, 2019 to govern the functioning and operations of insurance companies in India. Here are five key points highlighted in the regulation:

1. Solvency and Capital Adequacy: The regulation lays down guidelines and standards for insurance companies regarding solvency requirements and capital adequacy. It sets out the minimum capital requirements that insurers must maintain to ensure their financial stability and ability to meet policyholder obligations.

2. Governance and Management: The regulation focuses on strengthening the governance and management practices of insurance companies. It outlines the responsibilities of the board of directors, senior management, and key functionaries within the company. It emphasizes the need for proper risk management, internal controls, and compliance mechanisms.

3. Product Design and Pricing: The regulation provides guidelines for the design and pricing of insurance products. It emphasizes the need for fair and transparent practices in product development, ensuring that the products offered to customers are suitable, adequately priced, and meet the needs of the target market. The regulation also prohibits unfair trade practices and misleading advertisements.

4. Policyholder Protection: The IRDA Regulation, 2019 emphasizes the importance of protecting the interests of policyholders. It mandates insurers to adopt fair and transparent practices in dealing with policyholders, including prompt and fair settlement of claims, effective grievance redressal mechanisms, and clear disclosure of policy terms and conditions. The regulation also requires insurers to maintain confidentiality and security of policyholder information.

5. Financial Reporting and Disclosure: The regulation establishes guidelines for financial reporting and disclosure by insurance companies. It sets out the format and timelines for submitting financial statements, ensuring that insurers maintain accurate and transparent financial records. The regulation also requires insurers to disclose relevant information to the IRDA and the public, enabling stakeholders to make informed decisions.

These points highlight some of the key aspects covered in the IRDA Regulation, 2019. The regulation aims to promote a sound and well-regulated insurance sector, safeguard the interests of policyholders, and ensure the financial stability and integrity of insurance companies in India.

(g) Write any five differences between re-insurance and co-insurance.

Ans: Reinsurance and co-insurance are both risk-sharing mechanisms used in the insurance industry, but they differ in several key aspects. Here are five differences between reinsurance and co-insurance:

1. Definition:

   - Reinsurance: Reinsurance is a process where an insurance company transfers a portion of its risks to another insurance company or multiple insurers, known as reinsurers.

   - Co-insurance: Co-insurance is a situation where multiple insurance companies share the risk and liability of a single insurance policy or contract. Each insurer assumes a specific percentage of the risk.

2. Risk Distribution:

   - Reinsurance: In reinsurance, the primary insurance company (ceding insurer) transfers a portion of its risk to the reinsurer(s). The reinsurer assumes the transferred risks in exchange for a premium.

   - Co-insurance: In co-insurance, the risk is distributed among multiple insurance companies. Each insurer takes on a specified percentage of the risk and is responsible for their respective share of claims and premiums.

3. Risk Retention:

   - Reinsurance: With reinsurance, the primary insurance company retains only a portion of the risk it initially underwrites. The remainder is transferred to the reinsurer(s), reducing the ceding insurer's exposure to large or catastrophic losses.

   - Co-insurance: In co-insurance, each participating insurance company retains a percentage of the risk it underwrites. This means that each insurer retains a portion of the potential losses associated with the insured risk.

4. Policy Administration:

   - Reinsurance: In reinsurance, the primary insurance company retains the responsibility for policy administration, including underwriting, policy issuance, premium collection, and claims handling. The reinsurer is not directly involved in these administrative functions.

   - Co-insurance: In co-insurance, the participating insurance companies share the administrative tasks associated with the policy. Each insurer may handle underwriting, policy issuance, premium collection, and claims processing for their respective portion of the risk.

5. Relationship between Insurers:

   - Reinsurance: Reinsurance involves a contractual relationship between the primary insurer and the reinsurer(s). The reinsurer is an independent entity that assumes a portion of the risk in exchange for a premium.

   - Co-insurance: Co-insurance involves a cooperative relationship between the participating insurance companies. They work together to underwrite and share the risk of a single policy or contract.

It's important to note that both reinsurance and co-insurance are used by insurance companies to manage their risk exposures, protect their capital, and enhance their capacity to underwrite policies. The choice between reinsurance and co-insurance depends on factors such as the nature of the risk, the size of the insurance company, and the desired level of risk-sharing.

(h) State five objectives of insurance.

Ans: The following are the Five objectives of insurance :

1. Risk Transfer: Transfer financial burden of risks to insurers.

2. Financial Protection: Provide financial security for unexpected events.

3. Loss Prevention and Risk Management: Promote risk reduction measures.

4. Certainty and Peace of Mind: Offer peace of mind and reduce uncertainties.

5. Stimulating Economic Growth: Drive economic growth and investment.


The objectives of insurance can vary depending on the context and perspective. However, here are five common objectives of insurance:

1. Risk Transfer: One of the primary objectives of insurance is to transfer the financial burden of risks from individuals or businesses to insurance companies. By paying a premium, policyholders transfer the potential financial losses associated with uncertain events to the insurer. Insurance provides a mechanism to distribute and manage risks across a larger pool of individuals or businesses, reducing the financial impact of unexpected events.

2. Financial Protection: Insurance aims to provide financial protection and security to individuals, families, and businesses. It helps mitigate the adverse financial consequences of unexpected events such as accidents, illnesses, property damage, or liability claims. Insurance policies offer a safety net that assists in covering the costs of losses and helps policyholders recover from such situations with minimal disruption to their financial well-being.

3. Loss Prevention and Risk Management: Insurance promotes loss prevention and risk management practices. Insurers often provide risk assessment and loss control services to policyholders, helping them identify and mitigate potential risks. By encouraging risk prevention and risk reduction measures, insurance contributes to creating a safer environment and minimizing the occurrence and severity of losses.

4. Certainty and Peace of Mind: Insurance provides individuals and businesses with a sense of certainty and peace of mind. Knowing that potential financial risks are covered by insurance policies reduces anxiety and allows policyholders to focus on their personal and professional pursuits without the constant worry of significant financial setbacks. Insurance instills confidence by providing a safety net and mitigating the uncertainties associated with risks.

5. Stimulating Economic Growth: Insurance plays a vital role in stimulating economic growth. By providing financial protection against risks, insurance encourages individuals and businesses to undertake activities that may involve inherent risks. Insurance coverage helps businesses secure financing, attract investments, and undertake expansion plans with confidence. Additionally, insurance companies contribute to the economy by investing premium income, supporting capital markets, and participating in risk management for industries and infrastructure projects.


Gauhati University BCom Insurance and Risk Management Solved Question Paper 2022

4. Answer any four of the following questions in about 600 words each:       10 x 4=40

(a) Explain the different sources of risk in business.

Ans: In a business context, risks can arise from various sources and can have a significant impact on the organization's performance and objectives. Here are some different sources of risk in business:

1. Strategic Risks: Strategic risks stem from the uncertainty associated with the business's strategic decisions and actions. These risks can arise from factors such as changes in market dynamics, shifts in customer preferences, new competitors, technological advancements, or disruptions in the industry landscape. Failing to adapt to these changes or making poor strategic choices can result in financial losses, loss of market share, or missed business opportunities.

2. Operational Risks: Operational risks arise from the day-to-day operations and processes of a business. These risks can include equipment or machinery failures, supply chain disruptions, operational errors, employee misconduct, or inadequate internal controls. Operational risks can lead to production delays, quality issues, regulatory non-compliance, financial losses, or reputational damage.

3. Financial Risks: Financial risks relate to the management and uncertainty of financial resources within a business. These risks can arise from factors such as market volatility, interest rate fluctuations, currency exchange rate changes, credit defaults, or liquidity constraints. Failure to effectively manage financial risks can result in cash flow problems, financial instability, inability to meet financial obligations, or loss of investor confidence.

4. Compliance and Legal Risks: Compliance and legal risks arise from the potential violation of laws, regulations, or industry standards. Non-compliance with legal and regulatory requirements can lead to penalties, fines, lawsuits, reputational damage, or loss of licenses or permits. These risks can include violations of labor laws, environmental regulations, data protection laws, or breaches of contractual obligations.

5. Reputational Risks: Reputational risks arise from negative perceptions or damage to the reputation of a business. These risks can be triggered by various factors such as product recalls, customer complaints, ethical misconduct, data breaches, or negative publicity. Reputational risks can result in a loss of customer trust, decreased market value, difficulty attracting and retaining customers, or challenges in attracting talented employees.

6. Human Resources Risks: Human resources risks arise from the management and dynamics of the workforce. These risks can include issues such as employee turnover, skills shortages, labor disputes, inadequate training or performance management, or employee misconduct. Human resources risks can impact productivity, employee morale, and the overall effectiveness of the organization.

7. Environmental and Social Risks: Environmental and social risks arise from the potential negative impacts of a business's operations on the environment and society. These risks can include environmental pollution, resource depletion, community opposition, or non-compliance with social responsibility standards. Failure to address environmental and social risks can lead to legal and regulatory consequences, reputational damage, or loss of business opportunities.

It's important for businesses to identify, assess, and manage these various sources of risk effectively. Implementing risk management strategies, including risk assessments, risk mitigation plans, and monitoring mechanisms, can help businesses mitigate the impact of risks and seize opportunities for growth and success.

(b) Describe various needs of insurance.

Ans: Insurance serves various needs and plays a crucial role in providing financial protection and risk management. Here are some of the key needs that insurance addresses:

1. Risk Mitigation: One of the primary needs of insurance is to mitigate the financial risks associated with uncertain events. Insurance provides individuals and businesses with a safety net, helping them manage the potential financial losses resulting from accidents, illnesses, natural disasters, or other unforeseen events. By transferring the risk to an insurance company, policyholders can protect their financial well-being and avoid significant financial burdens.

2. Protection of Assets: Insurance helps protect valuable assets, such as homes, vehicles, businesses, and personal belongings, against potential risks and damages. Property insurance, such as homeowners' insurance or commercial property insurance, provides coverage for the repair or replacement of assets in case of damage or loss due to perils like fire, theft, or natural disasters.

3. Health and Medical Expenses: Health insurance addresses the need for affordable access to healthcare services. It provides coverage for medical expenses, including hospitalization, surgeries, medications, and preventive care. Health insurance enables individuals and families to manage healthcare costs and ensures timely access to necessary medical treatments.

4. Income Replacement: Life insurance and disability insurance address the need for income replacement in the event of death or disability. Life insurance provides a financial payout to the beneficiaries of the insured individual upon their death, helping replace lost income and support their financial needs. Disability insurance provides income replacement if the insured person becomes disabled and unable to work.

5. Business Continuity: Businesses have specific insurance needs to ensure continuity and protect against potential risks. Business insurance policies, such as property insurance, liability insurance, and business interruption insurance, safeguard businesses from financial losses resulting from property damage, lawsuits, or disruptions in operations.

6. Legal Liability Protection: Liability insurance protects individuals and businesses from potential legal liabilities arising from third-party claims. It provides coverage for legal defense costs, settlements, or judgments if the insured party is held responsible for causing bodily injury, property damage, or other harm to others. Liability insurance offers financial protection and peace of mind against potential lawsuits and legal expenses.

7. Peace of Mind and Financial Security: Insurance offers peace of mind by providing individuals and businesses with a sense of security and protection against uncertainties. Knowing that potential financial risks are covered by insurance policies helps reduce anxiety and allows policyholders to focus on their personal and professional pursuits without the constant worry of significant financial setbacks.

8. Compliance and Legal Requirements: Insurance may be required by law or regulatory authorities. For example, auto insurance is mandatory in many jurisdictions to ensure that drivers have coverage in case of accidents. Similarly, certain professions or industries may have legal requirements for professional liability insurance or workers' compensation insurance to protect against potential risks and liabilities associated with their activities.

These are some of the key needs that insurance fulfills. Insurance provides individuals, businesses, and society as a whole with financial protection, risk management, and peace of mind in the face of unpredictable events and uncertainties.

(c) Discuss certain impact of globalisation in insurance sector.

Ans: Globalization has had a significant impact on the insurance sector, bringing both opportunities and challenges. Here are some key impacts of globalization in the insurance industry:

1. Market Expansion: Globalization has opened up new markets and expanded the reach of insurance companies. Insurers can now enter and operate in foreign markets more easily, allowing them to tap into a larger customer base and diversify their portfolios. This has led to increased competition and the emergence of global insurance players.

2. Cross-Border Transactions: Globalization has facilitated cross-border transactions and international trade. Insurance plays a vital role in managing the risks associated with international business activities, such as marine insurance for shipping, cargo insurance, or trade credit insurance. Insurers provide coverage for risks related to imports, exports, and supply chains, contributing to the smooth functioning of global trade.

3. Technological Advancements: Globalization has accelerated technological advancements in the insurance sector. Insurers have embraced digitalization, automation, and data analytics to streamline their operations, enhance customer experiences, and develop innovative insurance products. Technology has enabled insurers to expand their reach, improve underwriting processes, and offer online policy services to customers around the world.

4. Risk Management: Globalization has brought new and complex risks that require specialized insurance solutions. Risks associated with geopolitical instability, terrorism, cyber threats, climate change, and natural disasters have become more prominent. Insurers have developed products to address these risks, such as political risk insurance, cyber insurance, and climate risk insurance, providing coverage against global risks.

5. Regulatory Challenges: Globalization has posed challenges in terms of regulatory frameworks. Insurance companies operating in multiple jurisdictions must navigate different regulatory requirements, compliance standards, and reporting obligations. Harmonizing regulations across borders and ensuring regulatory consistency remains a significant challenge in the global insurance industry.

6. Collaboration and Partnerships: Globalization has fostered collaboration and partnerships between insurance companies across borders. Insurers form alliances, joint ventures, or strategic partnerships to access new markets, share expertise, and pool resources. Such collaborations enable insurers to leverage each other's strengths and expand their global presence.

7. Reinsurance and Risk Transfer: Globalization has increased the demand for reinsurance services. Reinsurance allows insurers to transfer a portion of their risks to other insurers or reinsurers. Global reinsurers provide capacity and expertise to manage large-scale or catastrophic risks, enabling primary insurers to underwrite policies with higher limits and manage their exposure effectively.

8. Regulatory Arbitrage: Globalization has created opportunities for regulatory arbitrage, where insurers may choose to establish their operations in jurisdictions with favorable regulations, tax benefits, or lower capital requirements. This can lead to regulatory challenges and the need for international regulatory cooperation to ensure effective oversight and consumer protection.

Overall, globalization has transformed the insurance sector by expanding market opportunities, introducing new risks, and driving technological advancements. It has brought both benefits and challenges, necessitating insurers to adapt to the evolving global landscape, develop innovative solutions, and navigate complex regulatory environments to remain competitive and meet the needs of customers in a globalized world.

(d) Define insurance. Discuss different types of insurance.

Ans:  Insurance is a risk management mechanism that involves transferring the potential financial loss of an uncertain event from an individual or organization to an insurance company in exchange for the payment of a premium. It provides financial protection and peace of mind by compensating for losses incurred due to covered events.

There are various types of insurance available to cater to different needs and risks. Here are some common types of insurance:

1. Life Insurance: Life insurance provides a financial benefit to the beneficiaries of the insured individual upon their death. It helps provide financial security to the family or dependents by replacing the loss of income or covering expenses such as mortgage payments, education costs, or outstanding debts. There are different types of life insurance policies, including term life insurance, whole life insurance, and universal life insurance.

2. Health Insurance: Health insurance covers medical expenses incurred by the insured individual. It provides coverage for hospitalization, surgeries, medications, and other medical services. Health insurance can be offered by employers as a group policy or individuals can purchase individual health insurance plans. Government-sponsored health insurance programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, also exist to provide coverage for specific populations.

3. Property Insurance: Property insurance covers damage or loss to property, including buildings, homes, and belongings, due to various perils such as fire, theft, or natural disasters. It provides financial protection against the cost of repairing or replacing damaged property. Property insurance can include homeowner's insurance, renter's insurance, or commercial property insurance.

4. Auto Insurance: Auto insurance provides coverage for vehicles against damages or losses due to accidents, theft, or other covered events. It typically includes coverage for liability, property damage, and medical expenses. Auto insurance is mandatory in many countries and can also offer optional coverage for additional protection, such as comprehensive coverage or uninsured/underinsured motorist coverage.

5. Liability Insurance: Liability insurance protects individuals or organizations from legal liabilities arising from third-party claims for bodily injury, property damage, or personal injury. It covers the costs of legal defense and any settlements or judgments against the insured. Liability insurance can include general liability insurance, professional liability insurance (such as malpractice insurance for healthcare professionals), or product liability insurance.

6. Travel Insurance: Travel insurance provides coverage for risks associated with traveling, such as trip cancellation or interruption, medical emergencies, lost baggage, or travel accidents. It offers financial protection and assistance services to travelers during their trips.

7. Disability Insurance: Disability insurance provides income replacement in the event that the insured individual becomes disabled and is unable to work. It helps cover ongoing living expenses and ensures financial stability during the period of disability.

8. Business Insurance: Business insurance offers coverage for risks associated with business operations. It includes various types of insurance, such as property insurance, liability insurance, business interruption insurance, and professional liability insurance, tailored to meet the specific needs of businesses.

These are just a few examples of the many types of insurance available. Insurance policies can be customized and tailored to individual or business needs, providing protection against a wide range of risks. It's important to carefully assess one's needs and consult with insurance professionals to determine the most appropriate type and level of insurance coverage.

(e) Critically examine various factors affecting risk. From where these information of risk is obtained?      8+2=10

Ans: Various factors can affect risk across different contexts and industries. These factors can be broadly categorized into internal and external factors. Here, we will examine some key factors that can influence risk:

1. Internal Factors:


 a. Organizational Culture: The culture within an organization can impact risk. A culture that promotes risk awareness, accountability, and proactive risk management is likely to have a positive effect on minimizing risks.


b. Management Practices: The effectiveness of management practices, including risk identification, assessment, and mitigation strategies, can significantly influence the level of risk within an organization. Strong leadership and management commitment to risk management are crucial.


c. Human Resources: The skills, expertise, and training of employees can impact risk. Competent and well-trained employees who understand their roles and responsibilities in managing risks can help reduce the likelihood and impact of adverse events.


d. Operational Processes: The efficiency and effectiveness of operational processes can affect risk. Well-designed and properly executed processes reduce the likelihood of errors, disruptions, and vulnerabilities that can lead to risks.


e. Financial Stability: The financial health and stability of an organization play a role in risk. Adequate financial resources and sound financial management contribute to resilience in the face of potential risks.

2. External Factors:


a. Economic Conditions: Economic factors, such as inflation rates, interest rates, and market volatility, can significantly influence risk. Economic downturns, fluctuations, or crises can introduce new risks or exacerbate existing ones.


b. Regulatory Environment: Regulatory requirements, changes in laws, and compliance obligations impact risk. Failure to comply with regulations can result in legal, financial, and reputational risks for organizations.


c. Technological Advancements: Technological innovations and advancements introduce both opportunities and risks. Rapid technological changes can lead to new vulnerabilities, cyber threats, or disruptions that organizations must address.


d. Market Competition: Competitive pressures and market dynamics can affect risk. Intense competition may lead to risks associated with pricing, product differentiation, market share, or strategic decision-making.


e. Social and Environmental Factors: Societal and environmental trends, such as shifting consumer preferences, demographic changes, climate change, and sustainability concerns, can create new risks or impact existing ones. Organizations need to adapt to these factors to manage risks effectively.

Information about risks can be obtained from various sources, including:

- Internal data and records within the organization, such as incident reports, risk registers, historical data, and risk assessments.

- External sources such as industry reports, market research, and regulatory publications.

- Expert opinions and insights from risk management professionals, consultants, and industry specialists.

- Government publications and statistics related to economic, environmental, and social factors.

- Market intelligence and news sources that provide information on emerging risks, industry trends, and geopolitical developments.

Organizations often employ risk management frameworks and methodologies to gather and analyze information on risks. This includes conducting risk assessments, scenario planning, and utilizing risk management software and tools. Additionally, organizations may engage external auditors, consultants, or specialized agencies to assess and provide insights into risk factors specific to their industry or operations.

(f) Discuss the power and functions of IRDA.

Ans: The Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority (IRDA) is an autonomous statutory body in India responsible for regulating and promoting the insurance industry. The IRDA was established under the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority Act, 1999. Its primary objective is to protect the interests of policyholders and promote the growth and stability of the insurance sector. The power and functions of IRDA include the following:

1. Regulation and Supervision: The IRDA is empowered to regulate and supervise insurance companies operating in India. It grants licenses to insurance companies, monitors their solvency and financial stability, and ensures compliance with regulatory requirements. The IRDA conducts regular inspections, audits, and assessments to assess the financial health and performance of insurers.

2. Licensing and Registration: The IRDA grants licenses to insurance companies, insurance intermediaries (such as agents and brokers), and other entities involved in the insurance business. It sets eligibility criteria, examines applications, and issues licenses to ensure that only competent and qualified entities operate in the insurance market.

3. Product Approval: The IRDA plays a crucial role in approving insurance products introduced by insurance companies. It reviews the terms and conditions, benefits, pricing, and other features of insurance policies to ensure they are fair, transparent, and aligned with the interests of policyholders.

4. Consumer Protection: The IRDA works to protect the interests of policyholders and insurance consumers. It establishes rules and regulations to ensure fair practices, transparent disclosures, and prompt resolution of policyholders' grievances. The IRDA also promotes consumer education and awareness to empower individuals to make informed decisions about insurance.

5. Policyholder Protection Fund: The IRDA manages the Policyholder Protection Fund, which provides a safety net for policyholders in case of an insurer's insolvency. The fund helps ensure that policyholders receive compensation for their legitimate claims even if an insurance company is unable to fulfill its obligations.

6. Market Development: The IRDA is responsible for promoting the development and growth of the insurance market in India. It formulates policies and regulations to foster competition, innovation, and market efficiency. The IRDA also takes initiatives to expand insurance penetration, particularly in underserved areas and segments of the population.

7. Regulatory Framework Development: The IRDA continuously reviews and updates the regulatory framework governing the insurance sector. It formulates and issues regulations, guidelines, and circulars to ensure compliance with legal requirements and to adapt to changing market dynamics.

8. International Cooperation: The IRDA collaborates with international regulatory bodies, insurance associations, and standard-setting organizations to promote international best practices and exchange knowledge. This cooperation helps in aligning Indian insurance regulations with global standards and facilitates cross-border cooperation.

Overall, the IRDA exercises significant power and functions as the apex regulatory authority for the insurance industry in India. Its role in ensuring a robust and fair insurance market contributes to the protection of policyholders, the stability of insurers, and the growth of the sector as a whole.

(g) Elaborate various steps of risk management.

Ans: Risk management involves a systematic approach to identify, assess, mitigate, and monitor risks in order to minimize the negative impact they may have on an organization. The steps of risk management typically include the following:

1. Risk Identification: The first step in risk management is to identify potential risks that could affect the organization's objectives. This involves a comprehensive examination of internal and external factors that may give rise to risks, such as market volatility, operational vulnerabilities, regulatory changes, or technological disruptions. Various techniques, such as risk assessments, surveys, brainstorming sessions, and historical data analysis, can be employed to identify risks.

2. Risk Assessment: Once risks are identified, they need to be evaluated in terms of their likelihood of occurrence and potential impact. This step involves analyzing the probability and potential severity of each risk to determine its level of significance. Risk assessment techniques may include qualitative assessment (e.g., risk matrices, risk scoring) or quantitative analysis (e.g., statistical models, simulations) depending on the nature of the risks and available data.

3. Risk Evaluation: After assessing risks, they are further evaluated to prioritize and determine the level of acceptance. Risks can be classified as high, medium, or low based on their potential impact and the organization's risk appetite. This helps in allocating resources effectively and focusing on the most critical risks that require immediate attention.

4. Risk Treatment: Once risks are assessed and evaluated, appropriate risk treatment strategies are developed. Risk treatment involves determining how to address identified risks, which may include four main approaches:

  a. Risk Avoidance: Implementing measures to eliminate or avoid risks altogether, such as discontinuing high-risk activities or exiting certain markets.


  b. Risk Reduction/Mitigation: Implementing measures to reduce the likelihood or impact of risks, such as implementing safety protocols, improving operational processes, or implementing security measures.


  c. Risk Transfer: Transferring the financial impact of risks to another party, typically through insurance or contractual agreements, where the risk is shifted to a third party (e.g., insurance company) that assumes the responsibility.


 d. Risk Acceptance: Accepting the risks while establishing contingency plans and measures to mitigate the impact if they occur. This may be applicable for risks with low probability or low impact that are within the organization's risk tolerance level.

5. Risk Monitoring and Review: Risk management is an ongoing process that requires regular monitoring and review. This step involves tracking the effectiveness of risk treatments, assessing new risks that may arise, and ensuring that risk management strategies remain relevant and effective over time. Regular reviews, risk audits, and reporting mechanisms help in identifying emerging risks and adjusting risk management strategies accordingly.

By following these steps, organizations can proactively identify, analyze, and address risks, thereby minimizing the negative impact on their operations, financial stability, and reputation. Effective risk management contributes to better decision-making, improved resilience, and enhanced overall performance.

(h) Describe different principles of insurance contract.

Ans: Different principles of insurance contracts are as follows:

1. Principle of Utmost Good Faith: This principle requires both the insurer and the insured to disclose all relevant information honestly and completely. The insured must provide accurate details about the risk to be insured, and the insurer must provide clear and accurate information about the terms and conditions of the policy. This principle ensures transparency and helps prevent fraud or misrepresentation.

2. Principle of Insurable Interest: According to this principle, the insured must have a valid insurable interest in the subject matter of the insurance contract. In other words, the insured must stand to suffer a financial loss if the insured event occurs. Insurable interest is generally required at the time of purchasing the insurance policy and throughout the policy term.

3. Principle of Indemnity: The principle of indemnity states that the insurance policy is designed to compensate the insured for the actual financial loss suffered, but not to provide a source of profit. In case of loss, the insured should be restored to the same financial position they were in prior to the loss, without making a profit from the insurance claim.

4. Principle of Contribution: This principle applies when multiple insurance policies cover the same insured event. It states that each insurer will contribute proportionately to the loss based on the sum insured under their respective policies. The insured cannot recover more than the actual loss, and no profit should be made through multiple claims.

5. Principle of Subrogation: Subrogation refers to the insurer's right to take legal action against a third party responsible for causing the loss to the insured. Once the insurer has compensated the insured, they have the right to step into the insured's shoes and pursue legal remedies to recover the amount paid. This principle prevents the insured from double recovery.

6. Principle of Proximate Cause: The principle of proximate cause determines the cause of the loss or damage and whether it is covered under the insurance policy. If the loss is caused by an insured peril, it is covered, even if other contributing factors were present. The insurer will assess the proximate cause to determine the validity of the claim.

7. Principle of Loss Minimization: The insured has a duty to take reasonable steps to minimize or mitigate the loss after an insured event occurs. Failing to take appropriate actions to reduce the loss may affect the extent of the insurer's liability.

These principles form the foundation of insurance contracts and help ensure fairness, transparency, and effective risk transfer between the insured and the insurer. It's important for both parties to understand and adhere to these principles to maintain the integrity of the insurance contract.

(i) Write a note on Regulatory Framework of Insurance.

Ans: The regulatory framework of insurance refers to the set of laws, regulations, and supervisory mechanisms that govern the operations of insurance companies and protect the interests of policyholders and other stakeholders. The primary objectives of insurance regulation are to ensure the stability and solvency of insurers, promote fair and transparent practices, and safeguard the rights of consumers. Here are some key components of the regulatory framework of insurance:

1. Licensing and Registration: Insurance regulators require insurance companies to obtain licenses or registrations before conducting business. These licenses are granted based on various criteria, including financial stability, professional competence of management, and adherence to regulatory requirements.

2. Capital and Solvency Requirements: Insurance regulators establish minimum capital and solvency requirements that insurance companies must maintain to ensure their financial stability and ability to meet policyholder obligations. These requirements help protect policyholders from the risk of insolvency.

3. Market Conduct and Consumer Protection: Regulations are in place to promote fair and ethical practices by insurers. These regulations govern areas such as policy terms and conditions, sales practices, claims handling, premium rates, and advertising. They aim to ensure transparency, prevent unfair practices, and protect the rights and interests of policyholders.

4. Product Regulation: Insurance regulators review and approve insurance products to ensure their suitability, fairness, and compliance with regulatory standards. They assess factors such as policy wording, benefits, exclusions, pricing, and disclosure requirements to safeguard consumers' interests.

5. Policyholder Protection: Insurance regulators often establish mechanisms to protect policyholders in the event of an insurer's insolvency. These mechanisms may include guarantee funds or compensation schemes that provide financial assistance to policyholders and ensure the continuity of coverage.

6. Supervision and Monitoring: Regulators supervise insurance companies to ensure compliance with regulatory requirements. They conduct regular inspections, monitor financial performance, assess risk management practices, and take appropriate actions to address any concerns or violations. This oversight helps maintain the stability and integrity of the insurance industry.

7. Market Entry and Exit: Regulatory frameworks typically outline the processes and criteria for entering or exiting the insurance market. These requirements aim to maintain a competitive and stable market environment while safeguarding the interests of policyholders and other stakeholders.

8. International Coordination: In many cases, insurance regulators collaborate and coordinate efforts internationally to address cross-border activities of insurers, harmonize regulatory standards, and facilitate the exchange of information and best practices.

It's important to note that the specific regulatory framework of insurance may vary across jurisdictions, as each country has its own set of laws and regulations. Insurance regulators work in close collaboration with industry participants, consumer advocacy groups, and other stakeholders to ensure an effective and robust regulatory framework that balances the interests of insurers and policyholders while promoting the stability and growth of the insurance sector.

(j) What is risk? How is risk determined in life insurance? Discuss.         2+8=10

Ans: Risk, in general, refers to the probability or likelihood of an event or outcome that could result in harm, loss, or damage. In the context of life insurance, risk is the possibility of an insured individual experiencing premature death or a specific event covered by the policy, such as disability or critical illness, within a given period.

Life insurance companies assess risk using several factors to determine the premiums to charge policyholders. Here are some key aspects considered in risk determination for life insurance:

1. Age: Age is a significant factor as mortality rates tend to increase with advancing age. Younger individuals generally pay lower premiums compared to older individuals.

2. Health and Medical History: The insured's health plays a crucial role in determining risk. Insurance companies typically evaluate medical records, conduct medical exams, and may request specific tests to assess overall health and potential risks associated with pre-existing conditions or unhealthy habits.

3. Lifestyle and Habits: Certain lifestyle choices and habits, such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, or engaging in high-risk activities, can impact risk levels. These factors may result in higher premiums or exclusions from coverage.

4. Occupation: The nature of an individual's occupation is considered because some professions carry higher risks than others. Hazardous occupations or those involving physical risks may lead to increased premiums.

5. Family Medical History: The family medical history of the insured can provide insights into genetic predispositions or potential health risks that may increase the likelihood of specific medical conditions.

6. Coverage Amount and Duration: The amount of coverage and the length of the policy term influence the risk exposure for the insurance company. Higher coverage amounts and longer terms usually correspond to higher premiums.

7. Gender: Historically, women have had longer life expectancies compared to men. As a result, premiums for women might be lower than those for men.

Insurance companies analyze these factors collectively to assess the overall risk profile of an individual applying for life insurance. Based on this evaluation, the insurer assigns the applicant to a risk class, such as preferred, standard, or substandard, which determines the applicable premium rate. Individuals with lower perceived risks are generally offered more favorable premiums.

It's important to note that the exact factors considered and their weightings may vary among insurance companies. Therefore, it's advisable to consult with specific insurance providers or agents to understand how risk is determined in their particular life insurance policies.


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