AHSEC-CLASS 12 : Marketing Important Notes for 2023 Exam | HS 2nd Year Business Studies Notes

AHSEC Class 12 Business Studies Chapter 11 : Marketing Management Question Answer  can be very Valuable & useful for the Preparation of Assam Higher Secondary Education HS 2nd Year Examination . Assam Board AHSEC HS 2nd Year Business Studies Notes gives you the best information of Marketing Management Chapter . You can find solutions to their questions at both basic and advanced levels.

AHSEC Class 12 Business Studies Chapter 11 : Marketing Question Answe

AHSEC Class 12 Business Studies 



Short Answer type Question (Mark for each question -3)

1. Explain any three factors affecting pricing of a product.

Ans. Price determination depends upon number of factors - 
(a) Cost- The price of a product must cover fixed as well as the variable cost at the product.
(b) Demand - The demand for a product or services also influence price When the demand for a product is more then higher price may be charged. 
(e) Government policy - There may be government regulations for fixation of prices then, price will be fixed as per those guidelines.

2.Explain any three qualities of a good brand name. 

Ans. Three qualities of a good brand name are
(i) Brand name should be short and simple.
(ii) Brand name should be unique and distinctive
(iii) A brand name should be registered so that it is not used by other later.

3. Briefly explain any three methods of sales promotion.

Ans. The methods of sales promotion are:
(a) Rebate- It refers to selling product at a special price which is lower than the original price for a limited period of time (b) Discounts - This refers to reduction of certain percentage of price from list price for a limited period of time.
(c) Instant draw - It includes the offers like "search a card" and win instantly a gift like refrigerator, TV, T-shirt etc.

4. Explain any three features of advertising.

Ans. Three features of advertising are given below :
(a) Paid form - Advertising is a paid form of publicity: 
(b) Impersonal - Advertising is a one way communication. There is no contract between the advertiser and customer.
(c) Identified sponsors-Advertisement is given by a specified person, firm or a company.

5 Explain briefly any three features of personal selling.

Ans. (1) Face to face contact - Personal selling involves face to face contact with the customer.
(2) Oral- Personal selling makes use of spoken words or oral message. It is not in writing.
(3) Art-Personal selling is an art of convincing people to buy a particular product.

6. Explain any three advantages of labelling. 

Ans. Three advantages of labelling are
(1) Attractive and colourful label excite customer to buy the product. 
(2) The label help the customer to identify the product from the various types available.
(3) With the help of label product can be graded in different categories.

7. Write any three function of packaging.

Ans. Three function of packaging are -
(1) Packaging helps to protect the product from damage.
(2) With the help of packaging the product can be easily identified. 
(3) The handling of product is more convenient with approprate packaging

8. Differentiate between marketing and selling on the basis of:


9. Difference between advertising and salesmanship.


10. Discuss briefly any three advantages of branding to the marketer. 

Ans. (1) Helpful in product differentiation-A brand helps the marketer to differentiate his product from other similar product. 
(2) Helpful in introducing new product- When companies use their names as brand names, it becomes easy to introduce a new product.
(3) Differential pricing - The popularisation of a brand name helps a company in charging higher price for the product as compared to those of competitors. 

11. Explain any three importance / advantages of advertising.

Ans. Following are the advantages/importance of advertising
(1) Higher Reach - Advertising media reaches large number of people. Any
advertisement on TV radio seen or heard in every corner of country. 
(2) Creates demand for new product-New product are brought to the notice of people through advertising when people see the product on TV or news paper they become familiar with them. So it creates demand for new product.
(3) Enhances public confidence - Customers feel more assured about the quality of products when these are advertised by sponsors.

HS 2nd Year Business Studies Chapter 11 Marketing Important Questions Answers 

12. Discuss the importance of fair and exhibition in promoting sales. 

Ans. Fair and exhibition are becoming very popular these days in our country. They are organised on a large scale in the central places where people can reach easily They offer an opportunity to the manufacturer or sellers to display their goods and provide them a ready market. The consumers are also provided with an opportunity to study various products available, judge their relative strength and have the knowledge of the market.

13. Explain any three aspect/importance of physical distribution.

Ans. The three aspect of physical distribution are -
(1) Creates The time and place utilities Physical distribution helps in making the goods available at a time when these are needed and at places where these are needed. It helps in creating time and place utilities.
(2) Part of national wealth represents large share in the national wealth in the form of facilities rail, road, highways, aircrafts, storage facilities etc. 
(3) Improves Standard of living when good quality product are available imrespective of the place they are produced, it helps in increasing the standard of living.

14. Explain promotion mix' as an element of marketing mix.

Ans. Promotion is an important element of marketing mix. In a competitive market as it exists today, changing consumer preferences widening markets and growing distance between the producers and the consumers, promotion has become indispensable. Promotion mix concerns with important decisions such as selection of advertising media, selection of promotional techniques, taking steps for publicity and public relations.

Long Answer Type Question : (Mark for each question 4)

1. Define marketing. Explain its three features.

Ans. According to Philip Kotter, "Marketing is human activity directed at satisfying needs and wants through exchange process." 
Following are the features of marketing
(1) Creation of utilities - Marketing activities try to create three types of utilities-Time, place and possession utilities. The creation of such utilities adds value to a product.
(2) Delivery of standard of living - Modern business managers consider marketing as
consumer oriented. Therefore the major function of marketing in the satisfaction of consumer's desires for goods and services
(3) Distribution of goods and services-Distribution of goods and services is the traditional concept of marketing. The term distribution covers all other activities such as transportation, storage, grading etc.

2.State any four services/ advantages of advertising to consumer.

Ans. Following are the services of advertising to consumer 
(1) Selection of product - The existence of different varieties of product, their prices and their qualities are made known to the consumer only through advertising.
(2) Information service - Advertising also acts as an information service and helps the customer in intelligent buying. The consumer can exactly know where the product is available and at what price.
(3) Fair prices- Modern advertising stabilises the price of the product. In majority of the cases the retail prices are also advertised so as to make the buyer aware of the prices.
(4) Mail-order business-Advertising also makes it possible to sell direct to the consumer by mail order business. Therefore the consumers in the rural areas and interior parts of the country can also enjoy the comforts and luxuries available only in cities.

3. Explain briefly four advantages of advertising to the manufacturer.

Ans. Following are the advantages of advertising to the manufacturer: 
(1) Increased in volume of sales - Advertisement increase the volume of sales. It leads to increase production.
(2) Facilitates large scale production - Increased volume of sales leads to large scale production. The producers are therefore in a position to avail the economies of large
scale production and also distribution. 
(3) Protection from competition - Advertisement enables the manufacturer to build up goodwill for his firm and his product. This protects him from the agressive selling method adopted by his competiptors.
(4) Stabilisation of prices - The producer can easily stabilise and retain both the wholesale and retail prices of his goods. This would create confidence in the minds of public.
(5) Less expensive-Advertising is considerd as less expensive method of selling because the advertiser can speak to a large number of people through it

4. Discuss any four objections to advertising. 

Ans. (1) It increases the price of the products- The cost of advertisement forms the part of product cost alongwith other costs and thus increases the cost of goods sold or services rendered. This in turn, increases the selling price of the commodities.
(2) It created and bresds monopolies - Advertising creates monopolies and enables manufacturers to exploit the consumers. Further advertising kills free competition as it becomes difficult for new firms to sell their products.
(3) It misleads people - Advertising misleads people and acts as an instruments of cheating. Most of the advertisements are misleading which induce people to buy inferior products.
(4) It multiplies the needs of the people - Advertising encourage extravagance and creates dissatisfaction. The advertising tempts people to buy luxury goods which they cannot afford. This creates dissatisfaction and frustration among people.

5. State any four advantages of personal selling. 

Ans. The advantages of personal selling are -
(1) Face to face contact uver come lo envolves face to face contact with the customer. The seller and buyer come close to understand each other's view point.
(2) Better response - When a seller is able to give full information about the product then there is a response from the buyer also. When buyer's queries are satisfied then there are chances of positive response. 
(3) Long relationship - Personal selling amis to win a customer permanently. It seeks to develop a close and lasting relationship between the buyer and the seller
(4) Flexibility-Personal selling is flexible as the salesman can adjust his presentation as per the needs, preferences and expectation of the customers.
(5) Art-Personal selling is an art of convincing people to buy a particular product

Long Answer Type questions - (Marks5/6)

1. What is package? What are the function of packaging?

Ans. Packaging can be defined as, "A set of tasks or activities which are concerned with the designing, production of an appropriate wrapper, container or bag for the product.
The various function of packaging are 
(1) Protection - The fucdamental function of packaging is that it protacts the products from damage. Appropriate packaging protects the product from sun, rains, breakage etc.
(2) Identification-With the help to packaging the product can be easily indentified.
(3) Convenience - The handling of the product becomes more convenient with appropriate packaging. It makes it convenient of store and convenient to shift from one place to other.
(4) Promotion Packaging plays a role of silent salesman because it promotes or enhances the sale of the product.
(5) Facilitates Self-service Packaging facilitates self-service in retail outlets Customers can themselves pick up packed products easily.

HS 2nd Year Business Studies Chapter 11 Marketing Important Questions Answers 

2. What do you understand by sales promotion? Explain its significance. 

Ans. Sales promotion refers to short term use of incentives or other promotion activities that seek to stimulate interest, trial or purchase.
Following are the significance of sales promotion_
(1) Altention Value - The incentives offered in sales promotion attracts attention of the people.
(2) Useful in new product launch- The sales promotion techniques are very helpful in introducing the new product as it induces people to try new products as they are available at low price or sometimes as free sample.
(3) Aid to other promotion tool - Sales promotion technique make other promotion techniques more effective.
(4) Synergy in total promotion effort-Sales promotion activities supplement advertising and personal selling efforts of the company Sales promotion adds to the effectiveness of advertisement effort. 

3. Define advertising and explain its objectives.

Ans. Advertising is any non-personal promotion of ideas, goods or services of an identified businessman known as sponsor. The message which is presented or
disseminated is known as advertisement.
Following are the objectives of advertising:
(1) To introduce a new product by creating interest for it among the prospective customers. 
(2) To support personal selling programme. Advertising may be used to open customers doors for salesman. 
(3) To reach people inaccessible to salesman.
(4) To enter a new market or attract a new group of customer. 
(5) To fight competition in the market and to increase the sales.
(6) To enhance the goodwill of the enterprise by promising better quality products and services.

4. Explain in brief the factors that are taken into consideration while taking decision on pricing the product.

Ans. The various factors that influence the pricing decisions are below: 
(1) Objectives of business-The objective of the firm influence the pricing of its products on services. If a firm aims to maximum profits then it will try to charge higher price, if its objectives is to penetrate market to increase market share than prices will be fixed lower
(2) Cost of the product - Cost of the product is one of the most important factor, Generally prices will not be less than the cost of its manufacturer and it will be fixed in such a way to cover the entire cost of the product and to give a reasonable profit to the manufacturer.
(3) Demand-The demand for a product service also influences price When the demand for a product is more then higher price may be charged. On the other hand a lower price may be charged if demand for the product is low.
(4) Competition. The competition from those producing similar products is another important factor influencing price fixation. When a firm does not face any competition then it will be easy to fix a price at choice. If there is a keen competition in the market, the price fix will be lower to stay in the market.
(5) Government policy-There may be government guidelines and regulation for fication of prices, then price will be fixed as per those guidelines. 
(6) Marketing method used- The method used for marketing of products also influence price decision. The channel of distribution, promotional methods, type of packaging, consumer support services offered etc. have to be taken into account while fixing the price of a product.

5. Bajaj Auto wants to promote its sales in the market. Suggest any three sales promotion technique for this purpose.

Ans. As Bajaj Auto wants to promote its sales in the market, the sales promotion technique for this purpose may be
(1) Free gift-It refers to giving a free gift on the purchase of a particular product. Bajaj Auto may often some free gift on the purchase of any vehicle. 
(2) After sale service - Bajaj auto may guarantee customer after sale service of its product far a particular period. This type of service assures the customer of better utility of the product after purchase.
(3) Discount-This are like price promotion in which certain percentage of the price is reduced by some percentage as discount from the listed price.

6. Explain six important function of marketing.

Ans. Following are the important function of marketing 
(1) Market research - Market research involves gathering and analysing market information. A marketer conducts research to find out the needs of the customer. He collects information about the preference of customers for particular product, the time when they will need it etc.
(2) Standardisation and Grading - Standardisation means maintaining quality standards in order to achieve uniformity in the product. It ensures quality and packing of the product. Grading is the classification of product on certain basis. The basis can be quality size ete Grading helps a customer in distinguishing product from others.
(3) Branding-Branding is the process of using name, symbol or design to identify a product. It is now used to identify the seller also. For example - Tata India, Maruti Suzuki etc. 
(4) Product pricing Price is the money's worth which a customer pays to buy a product or service. Besides cost, a marketer has to keep in mind factors such as competition, price of similar products, objective of the organisation etc. 
(5) Physical Distribution-Another important function of marketing manager is making plans regarding distribution of goods or services. Physical distribution includes decision like choice of channel of distribution, maintaining storage, warehouse etc.
(6) Packaging and labelling-Packaging is traditionally done to protect the goods from damage in transit and to facilitate easy transfer of goods to customer. Labelling means putting identification mark on the package. It is that part of a product which contains information about the producer and the product.

7.What do you mean by "Channels of distribution"? Briefly explain the various types of channels of distribution.(Important qsn)

Ans. Channels of distribution indicate the route through which goods and service flow or move from producers to consumers. The movement of goods is facilitated by a number of intermediaries coming between a producer and a consumer. These intermediaries form channels of distribution for movement of goods and services. The various types of channels of distribution are
(1) Zero Level Channel In this channel the producer sells the product directly to consumers without using any intermediary Producer consumer.
(2) One level channel - In the channel only one intermediary ie retailer is used to reach the consumer.

Producer - Retailer → Consumer.

(3) level chann In hannel the producer directly deals with the wholesalers and sales products in large quantities to him. The wholesaler then sales goods to retailer in small quantities and retailer then sales to consumers.


(4) Three Level Channel - In this channel an agent comes before the wholesaler and retailer. The producer may not directly deal with the wholesaler but an agent comes between the two. 

11. What is industrial products? Explain its five distinctive features. 

Ans. Industrial products are used as inputs to produce other goods, say raw materials, machinery, tools etc. The main features of industrial products are:
1. These are used for further production of goods. 
2. These goods are generally used by industrial concerns.
3. The number of buyers of such goods is limited as compared to consumer goods.
4. These goods may be produced as per orders.
5. Shorter channels of distribution are used for these products.

12. What is promotion mix? Explain the various elements of promotion mix. 

Ans. Promotion is the process of communication with the potential buyers involving information persuasion and influence. Promotion mix concerns with important decisions such as selection of advertising media, selection of promotional techniques, taking steps for publicity and public relations.
The various elements of promotion mix are__
(1) Advertising - Advertising is a mass communication of information intended to persuade buyers to buy products with a view to maximise profits. It is a paid form of publicity. 
(2) Sales promotion - Sales promotion refers to short term use of incentives or other promotion activities that seek to stimulate interest, trial or purchase. The main feature of sales promotion is that it draws strong and quicker response from the target audience. Some techniques of sales promotion are - Rebate, discounts, contests etc.
(3) Personal selling-Personal selling is the process of assisting and persuading people to buy a product or service through direct personal contact. It involves face to face communication between a soller and a buyer.
(4) Publicity-Publicity is a form of advertisement without any identified sponsorer. It is a nonpaid form of advertisement. 
(5) Public relation - Public relation is a deliberate effort to establish and maintain natural understanding between an organisation and the public. It is an attempt to bring to the notice of the public the activities of the organisation in right perspective. Some public relation tools are - News, Events, speeches etc.


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