Unit-1 Introduction to Marketing | Gauhati University BCom 5th Sem | GU Principles of Marketing Notes 2023

1. Define market and marketing? State its objectives and importance in today’s world. 2017,2021 ANSWER: Market: A market refers to the environment..
Unit-1 Introduction to Marketing | Gauhati University BCom 5th Sem | Principles of Marketing Notes 2023

Gauhati University B.Com 5th Sem.
Principle of Marketing  Notes 2023 


1. Define market and marketing? State its objectives and importance in today’s world. 2017,2021

ANSWER: Market: A market refers to the environment in which buyers and sellers interact to exchange goods, services, or information. It is a dynamic system where products and services are bought and sold, and prices are determined through the interaction of supply and demand. Markets can take various forms, including physical locations like a shopping mall, online platforms like e-commerce websites, or even abstract concepts like the financial market.

Marketing: Marketing is a set of activities and processes that organizations use to create, communicate, deliver, and exchange offerings (products or services) that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large. It involves understanding customer needs and preferences, developing products or services that meet those needs, promoting and distributing them effectively, and maintaining customer satisfaction. Marketing encompasses a wide range of strategies and tactics, including market research, advertising, branding, pricing, and sales.

Objectives of Marketing:

  1. Customer Satisfaction: One of the primary objectives of marketing is to identify and fulfill customer needs and wants. By delivering products or services that satisfy customers, companies can build loyalty and retain a customer base.
  2. Profitability: Marketing aims to generate revenue and profits for businesses. Effective marketing strategies can help increase sales, expand market share, and maximize returns on investment.
  3. Market Awareness: Marketing helps create awareness about a company's products or services in the market. Building brand recognition and reputation is essential for long-term success.
  4. Market Expansion: Companies often seek to expand their market presence, either by entering new geographical areas or by reaching new customer segments. Marketing plays a crucial role in facilitating this expansion.
  5. Competitive Advantage: Marketing strategies can help a company differentiate itself from competitors. Whether through unique product features, superior customer service, or innovative marketing campaigns, businesses aim to gain a competitive edge.

Importance of Marketing in Today's World:

Marketing is of paramount importance in today's world for several reasons:

  1. Increased Competition: Globalization has led to increased competition in virtually every industry. Effective marketing strategies are essential for businesses to stand out and attract customers in a crowded marketplace.

  2. Consumer-Centric Approach: Today's consumers are more informed, discerning, and empowered than ever before. Marketing helps companies understand and cater to changing consumer preferences and expectations.

  3. Digital Transformation: The rise of digital technology and online platforms has transformed how businesses reach and engage with their target audience. Digital marketing, social media, and e-commerce have become vital components of marketing strategies.

  4. Data-Driven Decision Making: Marketing relies heavily on data analytics and market research to make informed decisions. The availability of big data and advanced analytics tools has revolutionized marketing effectiveness.

  5. Sustainability and Social Responsibility: Consumers increasingly favor companies that demonstrate social responsibility and environmental sustainability. Marketing is crucial for conveying these values and building trust.

  6. Brand Building: A strong brand is a valuable asset. Marketing helps build and maintain brand equity, which can contribute significantly to a company's long-term success.

2. Explain the nature and Scope of marketing. 2018

ANSWER: Nature of Marketing:

  1. Customer-Centric: Marketing is fundamentally about meeting the needs and wants of customers. It focuses on understanding customer preferences, behaviors, and buying patterns to create products and services that satisfy them.

  2. Value Creation: Marketing emphasizes the creation of value for both customers and the organization. It's not just about selling products but ensuring that the perceived value of the product or service exceeds its cost.

  3. Dynamic and Ever-Changing: The marketing landscape is dynamic and constantly evolving. New technologies, consumer trends, and competitive forces shape marketing strategies and tactics.

  4. Holistic Approach: Marketing takes a holistic view of the business. It involves not only promoting products but also product development, pricing, distribution, and customer service.

  5. Profit-Oriented: While marketing aims to create value for customers, it's ultimately geared towards generating profits for the organization. Effective marketing strategies should lead to increased sales and revenue.

  6. Interdisciplinary: Marketing draws on various disciplines such as psychology, economics, sociology, and statistics to understand consumer behavior and make informed decisions.

Scope of Marketing:

The scope of marketing encompasses a wide range of activities and functions, including:

  1. Product Development: This involves designing and creating products or services that meet customer needs and preferences. It includes features, design, quality, and innovation.

  2. Pricing Strategies: Determining the appropriate pricing strategy is critical. Marketers consider factors like cost, competition, and perceived value when setting prices.

  3. Distribution and Channel Management: Decisions regarding how products or services are distributed to customers are part of marketing. This includes selecting distribution channels, logistics, and managing relationships with distributors and retailers.

  4. Promotion and Advertising: Marketing involves creating promotional campaigns to reach the target audience effectively. This includes advertising, public relations, social media marketing, and content marketing.

  5. Market Research: Gathering and analyzing data about customer behavior, market trends, and competitors is crucial for informed decision-making. Market research helps identify opportunities and threats.

  6. Segmentation and Targeting: Marketers divide the market into segments based on characteristics like demographics, psychographics, and behavior. They then target specific segments with tailored marketing strategies.

  7. Brand Management: Building and maintaining a strong brand identity is essential for long-term success. Branding strategies and brand equity management fall within the scope of marketing.

  8. Digital Marketing: In the digital age, online marketing channels and strategies have become increasingly important. This includes SEO (Search Engine Optimization), email marketing, social media marketing, and e-commerce.

  9. Relationship Marketing: Building and nurturing long-term relationships with customers is a focus of modern marketing. Customer relationship management (CRM) is a key component.

  10. Ethical and Social Responsibility: Marketing also addresses ethical considerations and social responsibility. Companies are expected to engage in ethical marketing practices and contribute positively to society.

  11. Global Marketing: For businesses operating on a global scale, international marketing strategies are vital. These involve understanding cultural differences and adapting marketing efforts to different markets.

  12. Sustainability and Green Marketing: As environmental concerns grow, sustainability and green marketing have become important aspects of the scope of marketing. This includes promoting eco-friendly products and practices.

3. Explain the various functions of marketing. 2014, 2015

ANSWER: The following are the various functions of marketing:

  1.  Identify needs of the consumer: The first steps in marketing function is to identify the needs and wants of the consumer that are present in the market. Companies or businesses must therefore gather information on the customer and perform analysis on the collected information.By doing this they can present the product or service that matches closely with the customer needs and wants.

  2.  Planning: The next step in marketing function is planning. It is considered very important for a business to have a plan. The management should be very clear about the company objectives and what it wishes to achieve from the created plan.The company should then chalk out a timeline that is essential for achieving the objectives.

  3. Product Development: After the details are received from the consumer research, the product is developed for use by the consumers. There are many factors that are essential for a product to be accepted by the customer, a few factors among the many are product design, durability and cost.

  4.  Standardisation and Grading: Standardisation refers to the process of ensuring uniformity in the product which means that a product developed by a business shall be standard for every consumer with the same quality and design and this is one of the key aspects that needs to be maintained by the business. Grading is referred to as the process of classifying products that are similar in quality and characteristics. Grading helps in making the customer know about the quality of the product offered. It helps in making customers understand that the products conform to highest quality standards.

  5. Packing and Labelling: The first impressions of a product are its packaging and the label attached to it. Therefore, packaging and labelling should be looked after very well. It is a well known fact that a great packaging and labelling goes a long way in ensuring product success.

  6. Branding: Branding is referred to as the process of identifying the name of the producer with the product. Certain brands are there in the market which have a lot of goodwill and any product coming from the same brand will be accepted more warmly by the consumers. Although, having a separate identity for the product can be helpful.

  7. Customer Service: A company has to set-up various kinds of customer service based on their product. It can be pre-sales, technical support, customer support, maintenance services, etc.

  8. Pricing: It can be regarded as one of the most important parts of marketing function. It is the price of a product that determines whether it will be successful or a failure. Some other factors are market demand, competition, price of competitors. The company or business should understand clearly that bringing about frequent changes in the price of a product can lead to confusion in the minds of consumers.

  9. Promotion: Promotion is the process of making the customers aware of the product by presenting it to customers across various channels of promotion and entice them to buy the product. The major channels of promotion are: advertising, media, personal selling and promotion (publicity). An ideal promotion mix will be a combination of all or some methods.

  10.  Distribution: Distribution refers to the movement of consumer goods to the point of consumption. A company must ensure that the correct channel of distribution is selected for the product. The mode of distribution is dependent on the factors such as shelf life, market concentration and capital requirements. Proper management of inventory is also essential.

  11. Transportation: Transportation is defined as the physical movement of goods from one place to another. In other words, it is the movement of goods from the place of production to the place of consumption. Also, the correct mode of transportation can be selected based on the geographical boundaries of the market.

  12. Warehousing: Warehousing of products creates time utility. It is often seen that there is a gap between the time a product is produced and the time when it is consumed. Companies like to maintain the smooth flow of goods even when the products are of seasonal nature. Warehousing and storing provides the opportunity to provide goods during off season also.

4. Distinguish between Marketing and Selling. 2016, 2019

ANSWER: The Distinguish between Marketing and Selling : 





Customer needs and wants

The product or service being offered


Creating awareness and interest

Closing the sale and generating revenue


Broader and long-term.

More immediate and short-term


One-to-many (mass communication)

One-to-one (personal communication)


Market research, branding, advertising

Persuasion, negotiation, product demonstration


Attracting and retaining customers

Converting prospects into customers


Before the sale

During or after the sale


Building brand loyalty and customer trust.

Closing individual sales

5. Write a note on the traditional and modern concept of marketing and also distinguish between them. Briefly discuss the five different concepts of marketing. 2016, 2019

ANSWER:  Traditional and Modern Concepts of Marketing:

Traditional Concept of Marketing:

The traditional concept of marketing, prevalent until the mid-20th century, focused primarily on product-centric approaches. It emphasized production efficiency and believed that if products were made efficiently and at a low cost, they would automatically find customers. In this view, the focus was on manufacturing and distributing products rather than understanding customer needs and preferences.

Modern Concept of Marketing:

The modern concept of marketing, which emerged in the latter half of the 20th century and continues to evolve, is customer-centric. It recognizes that success is not solely dependent on product quality and production efficiency but on understanding and satisfying customer needs and wants. Modern marketing emphasizes building strong customer relationships, delivering value, and adopting holistic approaches that go beyond the product itself.

Distinguishing Between Traditional and Modern Marketing:

1. Product vs. Customer Focus:

   - Traditional: Product-focused, primarily concerned with efficient production.

   - Modern: Customer-focused, emphasizes understanding and satisfying customer needs.

2. Selling vs. Relationship Building:

   - Traditional: Emphasizes selling and pushing products onto customers.

   - Modern: Focuses on building long-term relationships with customers, fostering loyalty.

3. Marketing Mix:

   - Traditional: Emphasis on the 4Ps (Product, Price, Place, Promotion).

   - Modern: Expanded marketing mix, including additional Ps like People, Process, and Physical Evidence (especially in services marketing).

4. Information and Data:

   - Traditional: Limited use of data and market research.

   - Modern: Relies heavily on data analytics, market research, and consumer insights for decision-making.

5. Communication:

   - Traditional: One-way communication through advertising and promotion.

   - Modern: Two-way communication with customers, facilitated by social media and digital channels.

Five Different Concepts of Marketing:

1. Production Concept:

   - Focus: Efficient production and distribution.

   - Assumption: Consumers will favor products that are widely available and inexpensive.

   - Key Challenge: Meeting customer needs and quality expectations.

2. Product Concept:

   - Focus: Creating high-quality products.

   - Assumption: Consumers prioritize product quality and features.

   - Key Challenge: Ensuring that product attributes align with customer preferences.

3. Selling Concept:

   - Focus: Aggressive sales and promotion.

   - Assumption: Consumers need persuasion to buy products.

   - Key Challenge: Overemphasis on selling may lead to customer dissatisfaction.

4. Marketing Concept:

   - Focus: Customer needs and satisfaction.

   - Assumption: Understand and meet customer needs to achieve success.

   - Key Principle: Customer-centricity, building strong customer relationships.

5. Societal Marketing Concept:

   - Focus: Long-term well-being of society.

   - Assumption: Companies should balance profit-making with social responsibility.

   - Key Emphasis: Ethical and socially responsible marketing practices.

The evolution from traditional to modern marketing reflects a shift from a product-centric and sales-driven approach to a customer-centric, value-oriented, and relationship-building approach. Modern marketing recognizes that the key to long-term success is understanding, satisfying, and delighting customers while also being mindful of societal and ethical responsibilities.

6. What is Marketing Mix? What are the elements of marketing mix? Explain them briefly. (7 P’s) 2016, 2019,2022

ANSWER: The Marketing Mix, often referred to as the 7 P's, is a framework that businesses use to plan and execute their marketing strategies effectively. Here are the seven elements briefly explained:

1. Product: This refers to the tangible or intangible offering that a company provides to satisfy customer needs. It includes features, quality, design, and branding.

2. Price: Price is the amount customers are willing to pay for the product or service. It should consider factors like production costs, competitor pricing, and perceived value.

3. Place: Place refers to the distribution channels used to make the product available to customers. It involves decisions about where and how the product is sold and delivered.

4. Promotion: Promotion includes all the activities that promote and communicate the product to the target audience. This can involve advertising, public relations, sales promotions, and digital marketing.

5. People: People are the employees who interact with customers directly or indirectly. They play a crucial role in delivering a positive customer experience.

6. Process: Process relates to the procedures, systems, and workflows used to deliver the product or service. It ensures consistency and efficiency in delivering value to customers.

7. Physical Evidence: This element is particularly important in service industries. It represents the physical cues and tangible aspects that influence customers' perceptions of the service quality.

These elements collectively help businesses create a comprehensive marketing strategy to meet customer needs, differentiate themselves from competitors, and achieve their objectives.

7. What is Marketing Mix? What are the factors affecting Marketing Mix? Discuss. 2018

ANSWER: The Marketing Mix, often referred to as the 4Ps, is a strategic framework that businesses use to create and implement effective marketing strategies. It consists of four key elements:

1. Product: This refers to the tangible or intangible offering that a company provides to meet customer needs. Factors affecting this element include product features, quality, design, branding, and packaging.

2. Price: Price represents the amount customers are willing to pay for the product or service. Factors affecting pricing include production costs, competitor pricing, market demand, and perceived value.

3. Place (Distribution): Place involves the distribution channels used to make the product available to customers. Factors affecting this element include channel selection, logistics, inventory management, and geographic reach.

4. Promotion: Promotion encompasses all the activities used to promote and communicate the product or service to the target audience. Factors affecting promotion include advertising, public relations, sales promotions, social media, and content marketing.

Factors Affecting the Marketing Mix:

1. Market Conditions: Economic conditions, market saturation, and industry trends can impact all elements of the marketing mix. For example, during a recession, pricing strategies may need to be adjusted to maintain competitiveness.

2. Competitive Environment: The actions and strategies of competitors can influence a company's marketing mix decisions. Pricing, product differentiation, and promotional efforts are often adjusted in response to competitors' moves.

3. Consumer Behavior: Understanding consumer preferences, behaviors, and buying habits is crucial. Changes in consumer preferences can necessitate adjustments to product features, pricing, and promotional messaging.

4. Technological Advances: Technological innovations can impact the product itself, distribution channels, and promotional methods. For example, the rise of e-commerce has transformed distribution and sales strategies.

5. Regulatory and Legal Factors: Laws and regulations can impact product design, labeling, pricing, and advertising. Companies must comply with relevant regulations and adapt their marketing mix accordingly.

6. Cultural and Social Factors: Cultural and social trends can influence consumer preferences and values. Companies may need to adjust their marketing mix to align with these trends and cultural sensitivities.

7. Internal Resources and Capabilities: A company's internal resources, such as production capacity and marketing budget, can affect the marketing mix. Resource constraints may require adjustments to pricing or promotional strategies.

8. Marketing Objectives: The specific goals and objectives of a company's marketing strategy will influence marketing mix decisions. For example, if the goal is to capture market share, pricing and promotional strategies may prioritize market penetration.

8. What do you mean by marketing environment? What are the different kinds of marketing environment? Explain the various forces which influence marketing environment. 2014, 2016, 2018,2021,2022

ANSWER: The marketing environment refers to the external factors and forces that can significantly impact a company's marketing activities and strategies. It is the broader context in which a business operates and markets its products or services. The marketing environment can be divided into two main categories: the microenvironment and the macroenvironment.

1. Microenvironment:

   The microenvironment consists of factors that are closely connected to the company and directly affect its day-to-day operations and decision-making. Key components include:

   a. Customers: Understanding customer needs, preferences, and behavior is crucial for marketing success. Customer feedback and market research are essential in this regard.

   b. Suppliers: The reliability and availability of suppliers can impact a company's ability to deliver products or services. Pricing, quality, and timeliness of supplies are important considerations.

   c. Competitors: Analyzing competitors' strategies, strengths, and weaknesses helps a company formulate effective marketing strategies. Competitive rivalry influences pricing, positioning, and promotional efforts.

   d. Marketing Intermediaries: These are entities like retailers, wholesalers, and distributors that assist in getting products to the end consumer. Relationships with intermediaries affect distribution and sales strategies.

   e. Publics: Publics encompass various groups that have an interest in or impact on the company, including the media, government agencies, and advocacy groups. Managing public relations and public perception is vital.

2. Macroenvironment:

   The macroenvironment consists of larger societal and environmental forces that are beyond the company's direct control. It involves several key factors:

   a. Economic Factors: Economic conditions, such as inflation rates, exchange rates, and consumer spending patterns, can affect consumer purchasing power and demand for products or services.

   b. Socio-Cultural Factors: Social and cultural trends, values, and demographics shape consumer behavior and preferences. These factors influence product design, marketing messages, and target markets.

   c. Technological Factors: Advances in technology can create opportunities for innovation and efficiency but also disrupt industries and change customer expectations.

   d. Political and Legal Factors: Government regulations, trade policies, and legal frameworks can impact marketing strategies, especially in areas like product safety, advertising, and intellectual property.

   e. Environmental Factors: Increasing concern for environmental sustainability and climate change can influence product design, packaging, and consumer preferences.

   f. Ethical and Social Responsibility Factors: Companies are expected to operate ethically and responsibly. Consumer perception of a company's social and ethical stance can affect brand reputation.

   g. Demographic Factors: Population trends, such as aging populations or urbanization, can influence market opportunities and target segments.

The various forces which influence marketing environment :

1. Economic Forces:

   - Economic conditions, including inflation rates, interest rates, and exchange rates, can affect consumer purchasing power and spending habits.

   - Economic cycles, such as recessions or periods of growth, impact overall market demand and consumer behavior.

2. Socio-Cultural Forces:

   - Social and cultural factors, such as values, beliefs, lifestyles, and demographics, shape consumer preferences and buying decisions.

   - Cultural trends and shifts in societal norms can influence product design, advertising messages, and target market selection.

3. Technological Forces:

   - Rapid technological advancements can create opportunities for innovation and efficiency in product development and marketing.

   - Technology can also disrupt industries, change consumer expectations, and require companies to adapt to new digital platforms and channels.

4. Political and Legal Forces:

   - Government regulations and policies, including trade laws, consumer protection regulations, and advertising standards, can impact marketing strategies.

   - Political stability or instability in various regions can affect market entry and international expansion.

5. Environmental Forces:

   - Growing concern for environmental sustainability and climate change influences consumer preferences and expectations regarding eco-friendly products and practices.

   - Environmental regulations can impact product packaging, manufacturing processes, and supply chain sustainability.

6. Ethical and Social Responsibility Forces:

   - Consumers and stakeholders increasingly expect companies to operate ethically and responsibly, which can influence brand reputation and consumer loyalty.

   - Companies are scrutinized for their corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices, ethical sourcing, and philanthropic efforts.

7. Competitive Forces:

   - Competitors' strategies, strengths, and weaknesses can directly impact a company's marketing decisions, including pricing, positioning, and promotional efforts.

   - Industry rivalry and the threat of new entrants or substitutes can affect market dynamics.

8. Demographic Forces:

   - Population trends, such as aging populations, urbanization, and migration patterns, influence market opportunities and the composition of target customer segments.

   - Demographic shifts can lead to changes in product demand and preferences.

9. Technological Forces:

   - Advances in technology, such as artificial intelligence, data analytics, and automation, can transform marketing strategies, enabling personalized marketing and enhanced customer experiences.

   - Digital platforms and e-commerce continue to evolve, impacting how companies reach and engage with customers.

10. Global Forces:

    - Globalization opens up opportunities for international expansion but also presents challenges related to cultural differences, regulatory compliance, and supply chain logistics.

    - Geopolitical events and trade agreements can impact market access and international trade.

Companies must continuously monitor and adapt to these various forces in the marketing environment to develop effective strategies and remain competitive in a dynamic marketplace. A thorough understanding of these factors helps businesses anticipate changes, mitigate risks, and seize opportunities.

9. Explain the growth and future of marketing in India. 2015, 2017

ANSWER: The growth and future of marketing in India have been shaped by various factors, including economic development, technological advancements, changing consumer behavior, and evolving industry dynamics. Here's an overview:

1. Economic Growth: India's steady economic growth has led to an expanding middle class with increased purchasing power. This has created a significant consumer market for various products and services, making it an attractive destination for businesses.

2. Digital Transformation: India has experienced a digital revolution, with a massive increase in internet and smartphone penetration. This has opened up new avenues for marketing, including digital advertising, e-commerce, and social media marketing.

3. E-commerce Boom: The rise of e-commerce platforms like Flipkart, Amazon, and numerous homegrown brands has transformed the retail landscape. This shift has required companies to adapt their marketing strategies to reach consumers online.

4. Rise of Social Media: Indians are active users of social media platforms like Facebook, Instagram, and WhatsApp. Social media marketing has become a prominent channel for reaching and engaging with consumers.

5. Mobile Marketing: With the proliferation of smartphones, mobile marketing, including mobile apps and SMS marketing, has gained prominence. India's mobile-first approach has made mobile marketing a crucial component of advertising strategies.

6. Content Marketing: Content marketing, including blogs, videos, and influencer marketing, has seen significant growth. Brands are focusing on creating valuable content to engage with consumers and build brand loyalty.

7. Personalization: Marketers are increasingly using data analytics and AI to personalize marketing messages. Personalization enhances customer experiences and increases the effectiveness of marketing campaigns.

8. Rural Market Expansion: Companies are recognizing the potential of rural markets and are tailoring marketing strategies to reach consumers in these areas. Rural India represents a vast untapped market.

9. Green and Sustainable Marketing: There's growing awareness and demand for sustainable and environmentally friendly products. Brands that embrace green marketing and sustainability practices are gaining traction.

10. Globalization: Many Indian companies are expanding globally, which requires them to adopt international marketing strategies and adapt to different markets.

11. Regulatory Changes: Marketing practices are influenced by regulatory changes, including data privacy laws and advertising standards. Marketers must stay compliant with evolving regulations.

The future of marketing in India will likely involve continued digital innovation, increased emphasis on customer-centricity, and the integration of technology into marketing strategies. 

The Following are the some potential trends:

1. AI and Automation: Greater use of artificial intelligence and automation for data analysis, chatbots, and personalized marketing.

2. Voice Search: As voice-activated devices become more popular, voice search optimization will gain importance in SEO and marketing.

3. Video Marketing: The popularity of video content will continue to grow, with brands focusing on video marketing strategies.

4. Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR): These technologies will find applications in marketing, such as virtual shopping experiences and AR advertising.

5. Sustainability Marketing: Sustainability will remain a key focus, with more brands adopting eco-friendly practices and communicating them in their marketing efforts.

6. Inclusive Marketing: Inclusivity and diversity will play a more significant role in marketing campaigns, reflecting the diverse Indian population.

7. Data Privacy: With increasing concerns about data privacy, companies will need to be transparent and responsible in their data collection and usage practices.

The growth and future of marketing in India are closely tied to the country's evolving consumer landscape and technological advancements. Companies that adapt to these changes and leverage emerging marketing trends are likely to thrive in this dynamic market.

10. Write briefly on affiliate marketing. 2021

ANSWER: Affiliate marketing is a performance-based online marketing strategy where businesses reward individuals or other companies (affiliates) for driving traffic or sales to their website through the affiliate's marketing efforts. This form of marketing has gained immense popularity due to its effectiveness and cost-efficiency.

In the affiliate marketing ecosystem, there are three key players: the merchant, the affiliate, and the customer. The merchant is the product or service provider looking to increase sales, while the affiliate is the promoter who partners with the merchant to promote their offerings. Affiliates use various marketing channels, such as websites, blogs, social media, email, or even paid advertising, to attract potential customers. 

Affiliates earn commissions or a predetermined fee for every successful sale, lead, or desired action generated through their marketing efforts. The performance-based nature of affiliate marketing aligns the interests of all parties involved, making it a win-win model.

One of the significant advantages of affiliate marketing is its scalability and reach. It allows businesses to tap into a vast network of affiliates, each with its audience and marketing expertise. This broadens their market reach without incurring upfront advertising costs.

Overall, affiliate marketing has become an integral part of the digital marketing landscape, offering businesses a cost-effective way to expand their online presence and drive sales while providing affiliates with opportunities to monetize their online platforms.

11. What is Social Marketing ? Write advantages of social marketing. 2021,2022

ANSWER: Social marketing is a strategic approach to promoting behavioral change and social good by applying marketing principles to influence people's attitudes, behaviors, and choices in order to benefit society as a whole. It is often used to address issues such as public health, environmental conservation, social justice, and more. Here are some advantages of social marketing:

1. Behavior Change: Social marketing aims to inspire positive behavior change among individuals or communities. It uses persuasive techniques to encourage actions that benefit society, such as quitting smoking, adopting healthy eating habits, or using seat belts.

2. Targeted Messaging: Social marketing campaigns are designed with specific target audiences in mind. This ensures that messages are tailored to resonate with the people most likely to engage in the desired behavior change, increasing the effectiveness of the campaign.

3. Research-Driven: Social marketing relies on thorough research to understand the audience's attitudes, beliefs, and motivations. This data-driven approach helps in crafting messages and strategies that are more likely to succeed.

4. Long-Term Impact: Unlike traditional advertising, which focuses on short-term sales, social marketing aims for lasting behavioral change. It seeks to create sustainable, positive impacts on society.

5. Collaboration: Social marketing often involves collaboration among various stakeholders, including government agencies, nonprofits, and private sector organizations. This collective effort can amplify the impact of campaigns and initiatives.

6. Cost-Effective: Social marketing can be a cost-effective way to address social issues. Compared to some traditional public awareness campaigns, it can achieve significant results with relatively limited budgets.

7. Measurable Results: Social marketing campaigns are typically structured with clear objectives and metrics for success. This allows for the measurement of the campaign's impact and effectiveness.

8. Public Awareness: Social marketing can raise awareness of critical social issues and encourage open conversations. It can help break down stigmas and taboos, fostering a more informed and empathetic society.

9. Behavior Sustainability: By focusing on behavior change rather than just awareness, social marketing helps ensure that individuals continue to practice the desired behaviors over time, leading to lasting societal benefits.

10. Adaptability: Social marketing is a versatile approach that can be applied to a wide range of social issues, making it a valuable tool for addressing complex challenges in diverse contexts.

12.Distinguish between selling and marketing. 2021

ANSWER: Distinguish between selling and marketing: 





Transactional, short-term focus on sales.

Strategic, long-term focus on customer needs and satisfaction.

Primary Goal

To sell a product or service to customers.

To understand and satisfy customer needs, which may result in sales.

Customer Engagement

Typically, one-way communication from seller to buyer.

Two-way communication that involves understanding customer feedback and preferences.


Short-term orientation, often with immediate sales targets.

Long-term orientation, building customer relationships over time.


Primarily concerned with the product or service being sold.

Encompasses product development, pricing, distribution, and promotion, in addition to sales.

Customer Relationship

Often transactional, with limited ongoing interaction.

Emphasizes building long-term relationships with customers.

13.What is rural marketing? Role, Function and advantages, significance of rural marketing in modern day. 2022

ANSWER: Rural marketing refers to the process of promoting and selling products and services in rural areas, which are characterized by low population density, agricultural-based economies, and limited access to modern infrastructure and facilities. It involves understanding the unique needs, preferences, and challenges of rural consumers and designing marketing strategies tailored to these specific circumstances.

Role and Functions of Rural Marketing:

1. Market Penetration: Rural marketing helps businesses expand their reach beyond urban and semi-urban markets, tapping into the vast potential of rural consumers. This is particularly crucial in countries with significant rural populations.

2. Product Adaptation: Rural marketing often requires adapting products and services to meet the specific requirements of rural customers. This can involve changes in product design, packaging, and pricing.

3. Distribution Network: Establishing an efficient distribution network is essential in rural marketing, as rural areas often lack well-developed transportation and retail infrastructure. Companies may need to set up rural supply chains to reach these markets effectively.

4. Awareness and Education: Rural marketing involves creating awareness about products and services among rural consumers who may have limited exposure to modern marketing channels. It may also include educating them about product usage and benefits.

5. Pricing Strategies: Rural marketing requires pricing strategies that are sensitive to the income levels of rural consumers. Offering affordable pricing options is crucial to gain acceptance in rural markets.

6. Promotion and Communication: Companies engage in targeted promotional activities using local media, events, and community outreach to connect with rural customers. Effective communication is essential in conveying product value.

Advantages and Significance of Rural Marketing in Modern Day:

1. Untapped Market Potential: Rural markets represent a significant, largely untapped consumer base. With increasing rural prosperity and connectivity, these markets have become increasingly attractive to businesses.

2. Balanced Regional Development: Rural marketing contributes to balanced regional development by promoting economic activity in rural areas, reducing the urban-rural divide, and creating employment opportunities.

3. Diversification of Revenue Streams: Expanding into rural markets diversifies a company's revenue streams, reducing reliance on urban markets and making the business more resilient to economic fluctuations.

4. Social Impact: Rural marketing can have a positive social impact by providing rural consumers access to products and services that improve their quality of life, including healthcare, education, and technology.

5. Sustainability: By engaging with rural markets, companies can promote sustainable agricultural and environmental practices, aligning with modern-day concerns about sustainability and responsible business practices.

6. Government Initiatives: In many countries, governments offer incentives and support for rural marketing initiatives as part of their rural development policies, making it an attractive opportunity for businesses.

In conclusion, rural marketing plays a vital role in modern-day business strategies. It not only unlocks significant market potential but also contributes to economic development, social impact, and sustainability while aligning with government initiatives aimed at rural development.



UNIT - 1

Introduction to Marketing

UNIT - 2

Consumer Behaviour And Marketing Segmentation.

UNIT - 3

Product Planning And Pricing

UNIT - 4

Pricing, Distribution Channels And Physical Distribution.

UNIT - 5 

Promotion And Recent Developments in Marketing


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